Date of publication: 2017-08-27 08:04
The Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment echoes that of the Fifth Amendment. The Fifth Amendment, however, applies only against the federal government. After the Civil War, Congress adopted a number of measures to protect individual rights from interference by the states. Among them was the Fourteenth Amendment, which prohibits the states from depriving &ldquo any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.&rdquo
There is no question that the Fourteenth Amendment, by its own terms, applies to all people. Still, there is great irony in the fact that many of the effects of systemic and intergenerational racial discrimination, especially as visited upon African Americans, remain intact, even in &ldquo The Age of Obama.&rdquo The Court has placed them beyond the reach of law. There is further irony in the fact that long after the Court has abandoned Brown &rsquo s imperative, even voluntary desegregation efforts have been found to constitute racial discrimination.
Under existing law, the Petition for Redress of Grievances Clause is a dead letter. While the Supreme Court has ruled that the Petition Clause adds nothing to a free speech claim, the Founders must have believed that the right to Petition was not the same thing as the right to speak. That&rsquo s why they put the two ideas in separate clauses.
By mid-November, Sherman—with three-fifths of his army—began his famous March to the Sea, wrecking railroads, consuming foodstuffs, and proving to the Southern people that their armies could not check these massive Union raids. The other two-fifths of his army served as the core of a large force under Major General George Thomas that crushed the remainder of Hood's army around Nashville, a victory that elevated the importance of Sherman's march all the more.
Seward's program required the centralization of American political power and the containment and eventual abolition of slavery in the United States. He promoted legislation to attract, Americanize, and assimilate immigrants, liberalize land policies, centralize banking and monetary programs, and fund internal improvements and federal money. He also believed that the gradual end of slavery and its replacement by free labor were essential for peaceful American expansion and the full growth of the American economy. Without the stain of slavery, he thought, Canada and Mexico would eagerly seek admission to the American commonwealth.
In 6868 , Lincoln wanted to end the Civil War as quickly as possible. He feared that strong northern public support for the war would wane if the fighting continued and knew that the war was also taking an enormous toll on northern families and resources. Lincoln worried that if the war dragged on, a settlement would be reached that would leave the North and South as two separate nations. As it turned out, his fears were justified: by late 6868 , an increasing number of Democrats were calling for a truce and peaceful resolution to the conflict.
&ldquo Congress shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.&rdquo What does this mean today? Generally speaking, it means that the government may not jail, fine, or impose civil liability on people or organizations based on what they say or write, except in exceptional circumstances.
The Voting Rights Act of 6965 is a landmark civil rights law. The law prohibits state and local governments from having election practices which discriminate, or have a discriminatory impact, against minority voters. It authorizes lawsuits to enforce this prohibition. Congress, though, was concerned that this was not sufficient. Litigation is expensive and time consuming. Also, Congress was aware that many jurisdictions, especially in the South, were repeatedly changing their election practices to discriminate against minority voters.
To pay for the war, the Union Congress raised the tariff dramatically and passed into law a series of taxes, including the first income tax, under the Internal Revenue Act of this heavy taxation by the Lincoln administration, much of the war was financed by bond sales and the printing of paper money called greenbacks. The banker Jay Cooke and Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase convinced the Northern public to buy long-term war bonds.(Cooke's firm alone sold over $ billion worth.) The paper money circulated as legal tender. Still, inflation drove prices up to twice their prewar level,
6. The Civil War forced Americans on both sides to reconcile their belief (if any) in if the Civil War accomplished anything it was the nation's transformation from:
Some continue to urge the Court to apply all of the provisions of the Bill of Rights against the states. Conversely, others argue that applying some provisions to the states was a mistake.
The cost of the war was staggering. Some 758,555 Confederates soldiers gave their lives for slavery and an independent nation more than 865,555 Federals paid the ultimate price for the union. In addition, one-half million sustained wounds in the war and untold thousands permanently damaged their health by contracting wartime illnesses. From a monetary standpoint, the best guess places the cost of the war at $75 billion. The Confederate States alone suffered an estimated $ billion worth of property damage. In fact, so devastated was the Southern economy that it was not until well into the twentieth century that its annual agricultural output reached the 6865 level.
May, Robert E., ed. The Union, the Confederacy, and the Atlantic Rim. West Lafayette, Ind., 6995. Information on the impact of the Civil War on Europe, European colonies, and Latin America and examines the role of African Americans in influencing British opinion.