Date of publication: 2017-08-28 16:28
There are a wide variety of reference citation formats. Before submitting any research report you should check to see which type of format is considered acceptable for that context. If there is no official format requirement then the most sensible thing is for you to select one approach and implement it consistently (there's nothing worse than a reference list with a variety of formats). Here, I'll illustrate by example some of the major reference items and how they might be cited in the reference section.
The author's last name, unless first initials are needed to distinguish between two authors with the same last name. If there are six or more authors, the first author is listed followed by the term, et al., and then the year of the publication is given in parenthesis. Year of publication in parenthesis. Page numbers are given with a quotation or when only a specific part of a source was used.
Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet.
The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures. The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question(s) investigated. A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information. You must refer to each Table and/or Figure individually and in sequence (see numbering sequence ), and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc.
Best: Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions.
Any Tables should have a heading with 'Table #' (where # is the table number), followed by the title for the heading that describes concisely what is contained in the table. Tables and Figures are typed on separate sheets at the end of the paper after the References and before the Appendices. In the text you should put a reference where each Table or Figure should be inserted using this form:
Statistical test summaries (test name, p- value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course). This parenthetical reference should include the statistical test used and the level of significance (test statistic and DF are optional). For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows:
Improved example: Notice how the substitution ( in red ) of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context.
Improved Example : Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added.
To ensure the birth of healthy babies, to ensure the health of infants who develop into adulthood, and to optimize the health of women, the DIR focuses its research effort on the acquisition of information that will enhance our understanding of the biology of development and reproduction. The research program emphasizes the importance of fundamental investigations into the physics, chemistry, and biology of cells, their component parts, and the processes that govern and regulate their function. As part of their investigative focus, the scientific researchers of the DIR accord primary importance to the transmission of new information to future generations of scientists.
Headings : Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman numeral in sequence, ., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc. Each appendix should contain different material.
Why? Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism. If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example. Similarly, the above title could be restated as:
You must be a current Student, Staff or Faculty member of OSU in order to purchase all Apple products. Please bring in your OSU ID with you when picking up. Payment will only be accepted from teh qualifying individual. Questions? Please use "Message" box below.
Rapid Inspector : Software used to check your figure files (TIFF or EPS) against JBC standards for format, resolution, color space and other figure requirements before submission to the redactory office